- Physical Chemistry I
Spring 2015, Unique 51170
Lecture Summary, 20 January 2015
to Thermodynamics: We have spent most of our first
day defining the subject of thermodynamics, and discussion the most
important principles of the field. Thermodynamics is the
science that studies the effect on matter from the transfer of
energy through heat or work. Thermodynamics does not require
any assumptions or understanding of the physical nature of the
underlying system. Because of that, this science can be used
to understand the properties of systems in which the physical
composition is overwhelmingly complicated or completely
state: a system containing a set of defined properties that do not depend on history.
property: a variable that can be measured, implied, or manipulated.
path: the process by which a state moves from an initial to a final set of properties. Paths do depend on history and circumstances. Much of our study of thermodynamics will be spent trying to define paths in an intelligent way.
equilibrium: the point at which all forces are equal; the state at which the system is at a minimum potential energy.
Ideal Gases: The first system that we explore in detail is the ideal gas. An ideal gas obeys the following requirements:
1) The particles are non-interacting point spheres.
2) The size of the particles are much smaller than the distance between them.
3) Collisions between the particles or with the walls of the vessel are rare, and when they do occur, they are perfectly elastic.
We performed a few thought experiments to arrive at the following empirical (i.e. derived through experience) conclusions:
Boyle's Law: PV = constant
Charles' Law: P = constant x T
V = constant x T
When combined, these observations lead to the ideal gas law:
PV = nRT
Our first state function.